Particulate matter immissions (PM2.5) in urban environment
"Particulate matter" (PM2.5) refers to particles less than 2.5 micrometres in diameter. These particles are formed during industrial and commercial production processes, combustion processes, mechanical processes (abrasion, whirling-up) and through secondary formation (from sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, and volatile organic compounds). All emission sources such as transport, households, industry and agriculture contribute towards PM2.5 pollution, which causes disorders of the respiratory tract and cardiovascular system and increases the cancer risk and mortality rate.
The level of particulate matter (PM2.5) has decreased in recent years. The annual limit value is still exceeded in some cases. Therefore, the status is assessed as medium and the trend as positive.
The other countries of Europe also measure particulate matter immissions and calculate corresponding indicators. The level of particulate matter pollution in Switzerland is similar to those in its neighbouring countries. Particulate matter pollution is higher in major urban centres and heavily industrialised zone.
The current status and development of air pollution throughout Switzerland are measured and recorded by the National Air Pollution Monitoring Network (NABEL), which is jointly operated by the FOEN and EMPA (Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology). It comprises 16 measurement stations distributed throughout the country, which provide data relating to all the most important pollution situations. For the assessment of PM2.5 immissions, data are collected from NABEL stations with permanent measurement cycles.
|Targeted trend||Initial value||Final value||Variation in %||Observed trend||Assessment|
|Decrease||Average 2011-2013||Average 2018-2020||-29.86%||Decrease||positive|