Settlement and urban area
Areas of land in a natural state are an essential and limited resource. In a country like Switzerland, in which utilisable land is scarce, it is especially important to use the available land as economically as possible. Expanding the area of developed land not only results in the loss of fertile land, but also represents a threat to the diversity of species. Furthermore, the quality of our natural environment, which has a major influence on our physical and spiritual well-being, is also diminished as the result of intensive development and its negative impacts.
Between 1979/85 and 2004/09, the settlement and urban areadeveloped area in Switzerland expanded by 585 km2, or 24%. The main reasons for this are as follows
- the fast-growing population (although in the two cited periods, the population only increased by around 17%)
- the increased demand for personal mobility, which means more and more roads have to be constructed
- the need for more living space, which is partly attributable to the increasing degree of affluence
The degree of land use in Switzerland's central plateau (Mittelland) is especially high. Here the proportion of developed land development has increased at almost double the average rate for the entire country.In the 25 years during which data were collected, the developed area per capita rose by 5.1%, and is currently around 407 m2. The demand for developed land per person is constantly increasing, especially for residential purposes.
The zone land use statistics of the Swiss Federal Statistical Office determine land cover and land use in Switzerland using aerial photos taken by the Swiss Federal Office of Topography. Thanks to the sets of statistics for the periods from 1979 to 1985, 1992 to 1997 and 2004 to 2009, it is possible for the first time to make statistically secured and spatially differentiated assessments of the changes in land use throughout the entire country. The results of these development land use statistics can be used for documenting the extent of human intervention and natural processes that alter the country's environment and landscapes. The parameter used as reference for this purpose is the total of the mean population of the municipalities at the time at which the aerial photos are taken. The term "developed areasettlement and urban area" refers to all zones and infrastructure that are used for residential, transport and production purposes (excluding agriculture and forestry), trade and services, and utilities, waste disposal and recreation. The term "special development zoneurban area" refers to supply and disposal facilities (energy production, sewage treatment, waste treatment, etc.), quarrying/mining zones, landfill sites, construction sites and ruins, and buildings in these zones.