Indicator Climate

Annual mean temperature

The combustion of coal, gas and oil, together with forest logging and large-scale livestock farming, are the main causes of the rise in greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere that has been observed for several decades and the associated warming. Higher temperatures, even if only by a few degrees Celsius, have wide-ranging impacts upon natural systems and human societies.

Assessment of the state
impossible to evaluate impossible to evaluate
Assessment of the trend
negative negative
20-years weighted mean 2012: 1.348136424 20-years weighted mean 2011: 1.273828763 20-years weighted mean 2010: 1.213579611 20-years weighted mean 2009: 1.169210477 20-years weighted mean 2008: 1.140149194 20-years weighted mean 2007: 1.124095083 20-years weighted mean 2006: 1.117628059 20-years weighted mean 2005: 1.116857799 20-years weighted mean 2004: 1.117148836 20-years weighted mean 2003: 1.113681259 20-years weighted mean 2002: 1.102128462 20-years weighted mean 2001: 1.080107873 20-years weighted mean 2000: 1.048328944 20-years weighted mean 1999: 1.010649864 20-years weighted mean 1998: 0.972745941 20-years weighted mean 1997: 0.940091926 20-years weighted mean 1996: 0.915841718 20-years weighted mean 1995: 0.899217725 20-years weighted mean 1994: 0.885864282 20-years weighted mean 1993: 0.868796702 20-years weighted mean 1992: 0.840372618 20-years weighted mean 1991: 0.794150265 20-years weighted mean 1990: 0.726776611 20-years weighted mean 1989: 0.639290911 20-years weighted mean 1988: 0.537404467 20-years weighted mean 1987: 0.430096438 20-years weighted mean 1986: 0.32690512 20-years weighted mean 1985: 0.234956046 20-years weighted mean 1984: 0.157055966 20-years weighted mean 1983: 0.092185195 20-years weighted mean 1982: 0.037854566 20-years weighted mean 1981: -0.007646747 20-years weighted mean 1980: -0.044240348 20-years weighted mean 1979: -0.071162491 20-years weighted mean 1978: -0.089064387 20-years weighted mean 1977: -0.100757856 20-years weighted mean 1976: -0.110984884 20-years weighted mean 1975: -0.124118355 20-years weighted mean 1974: -0.1422803 20-years weighted mean 1973: -0.164727652 20-years weighted mean 1972: -0.188289462 20-years weighted mean 1971: -0.20922834 20-years weighted mean 1970: -0.224799457 20-years weighted mean 1969: -0.234211026 20-years weighted mean 1968: -0.237890195 20-years weighted mean 1967: -0.236550075 20-years weighted mean 1966: -0.229788002 20-years weighted mean 1965: -0.216060812 20-years weighted mean 1964: -0.193828556 20-years weighted mean 1963: -0.163910306 20-years weighted mean 1962: -0.130934006 20-years weighted mean 1961: -0.102912876 20-years weighted mean 1960: -0.088124129 20-years weighted mean 1959: -0.090946089 20-years weighted mean 1958: -0.108466575 20-years weighted mean 1957: -0.130372046 20-years weighted mean 1956: -0.141986391 20-years weighted mean 1955: -0.129886525 20-years weighted mean 1954: -0.086677042 20-years weighted mean 1953: -0.013699514 20-years weighted mean 1952: 0.079299238 20-years weighted mean 1951: 0.176797919 20-years weighted mean 1950: 0.261231792 20-years weighted mean 1949: 0.316956974 20-years weighted mean 1948: 0.333057441 20-years weighted mean 1947: 0.305405135 20-years weighted mean 1946: 0.236986569 20-years weighted mean 1945: 0.13698468 20-years weighted mean 1944: 0.01904141 20-years weighted mean 1943: -0.101073131 20-years weighted mean 1942: -0.208093612 20-years weighted mean 1941: -0.289935334 20-years weighted mean 1940: -0.340036714 20-years weighted mean 1939: -0.358784773 20-years weighted mean 1938: -0.352885342 20-years weighted mean 1937: -0.332775734 20-years weighted mean 1936: -0.308792959 20-years weighted mean 1935: -0.287937612 20-years weighted mean 1934: -0.272205023 20-years weighted mean 1933: -0.259655156 20-years weighted mean 1932: -0.246822918 20-years weighted mean 1931: -0.231470588 20-years weighted mean 1930: -0.214374158 20-years weighted mean 1929: -0.198977294 20-years weighted mean 1928: -0.189487396 20-years weighted mean 1927: -0.188695923 20-years weighted mean 1926: -0.196676866 20-years weighted mean 1925: -0.211414782 20-years weighted mean 1924: -0.230649462 20-years weighted mean 1923: -0.254062478 20-years weighted mean 1922: -0.283572359 20-years weighted mean 1921: -0.321833954 20-years weighted mean 1920: -0.369719279 20-years weighted mean 1919: -0.424287952 20-years weighted mean 1918: -0.479278455 20-years weighted mean 1917: -0.527273485 20-years weighted mean 1916: -0.563289125 20-years weighted mean 1915: -0.586721084 20-years weighted mean 1914: -0.601613594 20-years weighted mean 1913: -0.61414922 20-years weighted mean 1912: -0.629671285 20-years weighted mean 1911: -0.649920398 20-years weighted mean 1910: -0.672445669 20-years weighted mean 1909: -0.691933805 20-years weighted mean 1908: -0.702676426 20-years weighted mean 1907: -0.701067904 20-years weighted mean 1906: -0.686319888 20-years weighted mean 1905: -0.660067171 20-years weighted mean 1904: -0.625194309 20-years weighted mean 1903: -0.584860268 20-years weighted mean 1902: -0.543040259 20-years weighted mean 1901: -0.504978977 20-years weighted mean 1900: -0.477424619 20-years weighted mean 1899: -0.467199561 20-years weighted mean 1898: -0.479230589 20-years weighted mean 1897: -0.514968006 20-years weighted mean 1896: -0.572188211 20-years weighted mean 1895: -0.646318005 20-years weighted mean 1894: -0.731771538 20-years weighted mean 1893: -0.822171618 20-years weighted mean 1892: -0.909911394 20-years weighted mean 1891: -0.985492415 20-years weighted mean 1890: -1.038767231 20-years weighted mean 1889: -1.061504464 20-years weighted mean 1888: -1.050701259 20-years weighted mean 1887: -1.010247931 20-years weighted mean 1886: -0.950300824 20-years weighted mean 1885: -0.884179035 20-years weighted mean 1884: -0.824499002 20-years weighted mean 1883: -0.779538315 20-years weighted mean 1882: -0.751674522 20-years weighted mean 1881: -0.737778508 20-years weighted mean 1880: -0.731196679 20-years weighted mean 1879: -0.724577802 20-years weighted mean 1878: -0.712736695 20-years weighted mean 1877: -0.694319976 20-years weighted mean 1876: -0.671573366 20-years weighted mean 1875: -0.648638067 20-years weighted mean 1874: -0.62892286 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2021: 1.05 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2020: 2.28 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2019: 1.91 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2018: 2.3 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2017: 1.61 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2016: 1.49 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2015: 2.1 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2014: 1.93 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2013: 0.69 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2012: 1.24 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2011: 2.04 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2010: 0.1 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2009: 1.22 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2008: 1.03 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2007: 1.48 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2006: 1.37 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2005: 0.41 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2004: 0.82 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2003: 1.66 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2002: 1.5 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2001: 0.88 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2000: 1.41 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1999: 0.79 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1998: 0.88 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1997: 1.27 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1996: 0.05 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1995: 0.62 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1994: 1.8 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1993: 0.6 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1992: 1.15 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1991: 0.4 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1990: 1.12 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1989: 1.27 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1988: 0.77 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1987: 0.11 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1986: 0.03 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1985: -0.22 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1984: -0.46 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1983: 0.76 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1982: 0.64 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1981: -0.1 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1980: -0.73 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1979: -0.15 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1978: -0.43 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1977: 0.16 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1976: 0.04 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1975: 0.17 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1974: -0.09 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1973: -0.33 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1972: -0.34 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1971: 0.04 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1970: -0.51 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1969: -0.5 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1968: -0.24 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1967: 0.13 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1966: 0.06 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1965: -0.9 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1964: 0.35 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1963: -0.87 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1962: -0.88 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1961: 0.95 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1960: -0.16 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1959: 0.7 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1958: 0.08 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1957: 0.21 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1956: -1.48 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1955: -0.39 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1954: -0.55 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1953: 0.32 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1952: -0.16 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1951: 0.14 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1950: 0.45 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1949: 0.85 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1948: 0.7 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1947: 1.03 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1946: 0.16 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1945: 0.33 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1944: -0.63 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1943: 0.68 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1942: -0.28 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1941: -1.03 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1940: -1.13 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1939: -0.55 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1938: -0.17 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1937: -0.01 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1936: -0.19 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1935: -0.56 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1934: 0.55 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1933: -0.75 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1932: -0.31 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1931: -0.88 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1930: 0.33 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1929: -0.47 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1928: 0.27 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1927: -0.07 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1926: 0.16 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1925: -0.55 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1924: -0.52 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1923: -0.17 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1922: -0.89 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1921: 0.65 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1920: 0.48 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1919: -1.22 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1918: -0.25 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1917: -1.28 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1916: -0.45 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1915: -0.82 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1914: -0.64 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1913: -0.27 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1912: -0.82 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1911: 0.26 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1910: -0.9 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1909: -1.38 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1908: -0.81 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1907: -0.67 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1906: -0.69 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1905: -1.01 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1903: -0.68 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1902: -0.75 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1901: -1.18 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1900: -0.08 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1899: 0.03 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1898: 0.16 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1897: -0.12 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1896: -1.27 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1895: -0.9 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1894: -0.56 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1893: -0.31 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1892: -0.64 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1891: -1.34 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1890: -1.43 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1889: -1.56 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1888: -1.34 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1887: -1.62 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1886: -0.62 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1885: -0.48 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1884: -0.38 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1883: -1.12 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1882: -0.51 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1881: -0.59 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1880: -0.08 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1879: -1.73 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1878: -1.05 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1877: -0.52 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1876: -0.35 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1875: -0.73 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1874: -0.79 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1873: -0.18 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1872: 0.09 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1871: -1.5 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1870: -1.22 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1869: -0.55 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1868: 0.22 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1867: -0.52 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1865: -0.17 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1864: -1.42
Variations from the average of 1961–1990, in °C

Data for the graph: Excel
Source: MeteoSwiss
Comment

The annual mean temperature in Switzerland is subject to relatively large natural fluctuations. Since around 1950, however, the observed fluctuations can no longer be explained by natural factors alone. The rising concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere caused by humans has contributed substantially to the observed warming. Temperatures in Switzerland have increased by 2°C since measurements began.

The annual mean temperature cannot be rated positively or negatively as such. However, the trend observed over the past decades gives cause for concern. The changes to the climatic setting are happening relatively rapidly; as a result, ecosystems and endangered sectors of the economy (such as winter tourism) are unable or have difficulty to adjust to the new conditions.

International comparison

The Swiss temperature measurement series have been produced in accordance with internationally standardised methods. Globally, annual mean temperature variation since 1864 is about 1 °C, while it is around 2 °C in Switzerland. Global warming is more pronounced over the continents than over the oceans.

A global rise by 2 °C above the pre-industrialisation level is considered to be a critical threshold. If this threshold is crossed, severe ecological, social and economic damage is likely. In view of the longer-term development trends in greenhouse gas emissions and the great inertia of the climate system, it is becoming increasingly probable that global temperatures will indeed cross the 2 °C threshold.

Method

With its ground-level observation system (SwissMetNet), the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss) records a range of meteorological and climatological parameters across the entire territory of the country. The annual mean temperature for Switzerland describes the average temperature measured across the entire territory and at the different altitudes in Switzerland. High-resolution data are available from 1981. In order to extend the time series back to 1864 (beginning of records), the various measurement stations for the specified years are weighted on the basis of their representativity.

 
Last updated on: 18.02.2022

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