Indicator climate

Annual mean temperature

The combustion of coal, gas and oil, together with forest logging and large-scale livestock farming, are the main causes of the rise in greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere that has been observed for several decades and the associated warming. Higher temperatures, even if only by a few degrees Celsius, have wide-ranging impacts upon natural systems and human societies.

Assessment of the state
impossible to evaluate impossible to evaluate
Assessment of the trend
negative negative
20-years weighted mean 2010: 1.219 20-years weighted mean 2009: 1.173 20-years weighted mean 2008: 1.147 20-years weighted mean 2007: 1.131 20-years weighted mean 2006: 1.123 20-years weighted mean 2005: 1.124 20-years weighted mean 2004: 1.125 20-years weighted mean 2003: 1.118 20-years weighted mean 2002: 1.107 20-years weighted mean 2001: 1.088 20-years weighted mean 2000: 1.055 20-years weighted mean 1999: 1.015 20-years weighted mean 1998: 0.975 20-years weighted mean 1997: 0.944 20-years weighted mean 1996: 0.925 20-years weighted mean 1995: 0.908 20-years weighted mean 1994: 0.892 20-years weighted mean 1993: 0.874 20-years weighted mean 1992: 0.844 20-years weighted mean 1991: 0.798 20-years weighted mean 1990: 0.735 20-years weighted mean 1989: 0.648 20-years weighted mean 1988: 0.543 20-years weighted mean 1987: 0.438 20-years weighted mean 1986: 0.332 20-years weighted mean 1985: 0.235 20-years weighted mean 1984: 0.158 20-years weighted mean 1983: 0.093 20-years weighted mean 1982: 0.04 20-years weighted mean 1981: -0.007 20-years weighted mean 1980: -0.046 20-years weighted mean 1979: -0.07 20-years weighted mean 1978: -0.086 20-years weighted mean 1977: -0.097 20-years weighted mean 1976: -0.107 20-years weighted mean 1975: -0.118 20-years weighted mean 1974: -0.138 20-years weighted mean 1973: -0.164 20-years weighted mean 1972: -0.182 20-years weighted mean 1971: -0.203 20-years weighted mean 1970: -0.224 20-years weighted mean 1969: -0.23 20-years weighted mean 1968: -0.237 20-years weighted mean 1967: -0.234 20-years weighted mean 1966: -0.226 20-years weighted mean 1965: -0.208 20-years weighted mean 1964: -0.188 20-years weighted mean 1963: -0.158 20-years weighted mean 1962: -0.128 20-years weighted mean 1961: -0.098 20-years weighted mean 1960: -0.084 20-years weighted mean 1959: -0.089 20-years weighted mean 1958: -0.109 20-years weighted mean 1957: -0.131 20-years weighted mean 1956: -0.14 20-years weighted mean 1955: -0.127 20-years weighted mean 1954: -0.08 20-years weighted mean 1953: -0.003 20-years weighted mean 1952: 0.083 20-years weighted mean 1951: 0.187 20-years weighted mean 1950: 0.273 20-years weighted mean 1949: 0.33 20-years weighted mean 1948: 0.345 20-years weighted mean 1947: 0.321 20-years weighted mean 1946: 0.251 20-years weighted mean 1945: 0.15 20-years weighted mean 1944: 0.029 20-years weighted mean 1943: -0.094 20-years weighted mean 1942: -0.2 20-years weighted mean 1941: -0.285 20-years weighted mean 1940: -0.337 20-years weighted mean 1939: -0.359 20-years weighted mean 1938: -0.353 20-years weighted mean 1937: -0.333 20-years weighted mean 1936: -0.307 20-years weighted mean 1935: -0.283 20-years weighted mean 1934: -0.268 20-years weighted mean 1933: -0.254 20-years weighted mean 1932: -0.238 20-years weighted mean 1931: -0.221 20-years weighted mean 1930: -0.208 20-years weighted mean 1929: -0.192 20-years weighted mean 1928: -0.179 20-years weighted mean 1927: -0.179 20-years weighted mean 1926: -0.184 20-years weighted mean 1925: -0.204 20-years weighted mean 1924: -0.22 20-years weighted mean 1923: -0.245 20-years weighted mean 1922: -0.274 20-years weighted mean 1921: -0.315 20-years weighted mean 1920: -0.365 20-years weighted mean 1919: -0.418 20-years weighted mean 1918: -0.473 20-years weighted mean 1917: -0.524 20-years weighted mean 1916: -0.559 20-years weighted mean 1915: -0.582 20-years weighted mean 1914: -0.597 20-years weighted mean 1913: -0.61 20-years weighted mean 1912: -0.628 20-years weighted mean 1911: -0.649 20-years weighted mean 1910: -0.667 20-years weighted mean 1909: -0.69 20-years weighted mean 1908: -0.699 20-years weighted mean 1907: -0.698 20-years weighted mean 1906: -0.68 20-years weighted mean 1905: -0.651 20-years weighted mean 1904: -0.618 20-years weighted mean 1903: -0.577 20-years weighted mean 1902: -0.538 20-years weighted mean 1901: -0.495 20-years weighted mean 1900: -0.463 20-years weighted mean 1899: -0.453 20-years weighted mean 1898: -0.466 20-years weighted mean 1897: -0.503 20-years weighted mean 1896: -0.561 20-years weighted mean 1895: -0.642 20-years weighted mean 1894: -0.727 20-years weighted mean 1893: -0.818 20-years weighted mean 1892: -0.903 20-years weighted mean 1891: -0.984 20-years weighted mean 1890: -1.039 20-years weighted mean 1889: -1.063 20-years weighted mean 1888: -1.047 20-years weighted mean 1887: -1.005 20-years weighted mean 1886: -0.946 20-years weighted mean 1885: -0.881 20-years weighted mean 1884: -0.821 20-years weighted mean 1883: -0.775 20-years weighted mean 1882: -0.747 20-years weighted mean 1881: -0.73 20-years weighted mean 1880: -0.719 20-years weighted mean 1879: -0.714 20-years weighted mean 1878: -0.704 20-years weighted mean 1877: -0.69 20-years weighted mean 1876: -0.667 20-years weighted mean 1875: -0.645 20-years weighted mean 1874: -0.622 20-years weighted mean 1873: -0.604 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2018: 2.30533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2017: 1.60533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2016: 1.49533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2015: 2.09533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2014: 1.93533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2013: 0.69533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2012: 1.23533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2011: 2.04533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2010: 0.11533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2009: 1.23533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2008: 1.04533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2007: 1.49533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2006: 1.37533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2005: 0.41533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2004: 0.82533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2003: 1.66533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2002: 1.50533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2001: 0.88533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2000: 1.41533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1999: 0.79533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1998: 0.88533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1997: 1.27533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1996: 0.04533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1995: 0.62533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1994: 1.80533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1993: 0.60533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1992: 1.14533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1991: 0.40533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1990: 1.12533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1989: 1.27533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1988: 0.77533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1987: 0.11533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1986: 0.03533333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1985: -0.21466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1984: -0.45466667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1983: 0.76533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1982: 0.64533333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1981: -0.09466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1980: -0.73466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1979: -0.14466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1978: -0.42466667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1977: 0.16533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1976: 0.04533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1975: 0.17533333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1974: -0.08466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1973: -0.32466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1972: -0.33466667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1971: 0.04533333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1970: -0.50466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1969: -0.49466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1968: -0.23466667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1967: 0.13533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1966: 0.06533333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1965: -0.89466667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1964: 0.35533333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1963: -0.86466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1962: -0.87466667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1961: 0.95533333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1960: -0.16466667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1959: 0.70533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1958: 0.08533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1957: 0.21533333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1956: -1.47466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1955: -0.38466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1954: -0.54466667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1953: 0.32533333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1952: -0.15466667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1951: 0.14533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1950: 0.45533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1949: 0.85533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1948: 0.70533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1947: 1.04533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1946: 0.16533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1945: 0.33533333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1944: -0.62466667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1943: 0.68533333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1942: -0.26466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1941: -1.02466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1940: -1.12466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1939: -0.53466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1938: -0.16466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1937: -0.00466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1936: -0.18466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1935: -0.55466667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1934: 0.55533333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1933: -0.74466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1932: -0.30466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1931: -0.87466667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1930: 0.33533333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1929: -0.46466667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1928: 0.28533333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1927: -0.06466667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1926: 0.16533333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1925: -0.54466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1924: -0.50466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1923: -0.16466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1922: -0.88466667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1921: 0.65533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1920: 0.48533333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1919: -1.21466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1918: -0.24466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1917: -1.27466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1916: -0.44466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1915: -0.81466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1914: -0.63466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1913: -0.26466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1912: -0.81466667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1911: 0.26533333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1910: -0.89466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1909: -1.37466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1908: -0.80466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1907: -0.66466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1906: -0.67466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1905: -1.00466667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1904: 0.00533333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1903: -0.67466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1902: -0.73466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1901: -1.17466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1900: -0.07466667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1899: 0.03533333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1898: 0.16533333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1897: -0.11466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1896: -1.26466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1895: -0.89466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1894: -0.55466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1893: -0.30466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1892: -0.63466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1891: -1.32466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1890: -1.42466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1889: -1.55466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1888: -1.33466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1887: -1.61466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1886: -0.60466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1885: -0.47466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1884: -0.37466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1883: -1.11466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1882: -0.50466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1881: -0.58466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1880: -0.07466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1879: -1.72466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1878: -1.04466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1877: -0.51466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1876: -0.34466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1875: -0.72466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1874: -0.78466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1873: -0.16466667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1872: 0.09533333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1871: -1.49466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1870: -1.21466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1869: -0.54466667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1868: 0.22533333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1867: -0.51466667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1866: 0.00533333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1865: -0.16466667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1864: -1.41466667
Variations from the average of 1961–1990, in °C

Data for the graph: Excel
Source: MeteoSwiss
Comment

The annual mean temperature in Switzerland is subject to relatively large natural fluctuations. Since around 1950, however, the observed fluctuations can no longer be explained by natural factors alone. The rising concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere caused by humans has contributed substantially to the observed warming. Temperatures in Switzerland have increased by 2°C since measurements began.

The annual mean temperature cannot be rated positively or negatively as such. However, the trend observed over the past decades gives cause for concern. The changes to the climatic setting are happening relatively rapidly; as a result, ecosystems and endangered sectors of the economy (such as winter tourism) are unable or have difficulty to adjust to the new conditions.

International comparison

The Swiss temperature measurement series have been produced in accordance with internationally standardised methods. Globally, annual mean temperature variation since 1864 is about 1 °C, while it is around 2 °C in Switzerland. Global warming is more pronounced over the continents than over the oceans.

A global rise by 2 °C above the pre-industrialisation level is considered to be a critical threshold. If this threshold is crossed, severe ecological, social and economic damage is likely. In view of the longer-term development trends in greenhouse gas emissions and the great inertia of the climate system, it is becoming increasingly probable that global temperatures will indeed cross the 2 °C threshold.

Method

With its ground-level observation system (SwissMetNet), the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss) records a range of meteorological and climatological parameters across the entire territory of the country. The annual mean temperature for Switzerland describes the average temperature measured across the entire territory and at the different altitudes in Switzerland. High-resolution data are available from 1981. In order to extend the time series back to 1864 (beginning of records), the various measurement stations for the specified years are weighted on the basis of their representativity.

Basis for assessment of the trend
Targeted trend Initial value Final value Variation in % Observed trend Assessment
Stabilisation 1990 2010 65.85% Growth negative
Basis: 20-years weighted mean
 
Last updated on: 11.04.2019

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