Indicator Climate

Annual mean temperature

The combustion of coal, gas and oil, together with forest logging and large-scale livestock farming, are the main causes of the rise in greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere that has been observed for several decades and the associated warming. Higher temperatures, even if only by a few degrees Celsius, have wide-ranging impacts upon natural systems and human societies.

Assessment of the state
impossible to evaluate impossible to evaluate
Assessment of the trend
negative negative
20-years weighted mean 2012: 1.3536848 20-years weighted mean 2011: 1.2773868 20-years weighted mean 2010: 1.2187178 20-years weighted mean 2009: 1.1725778 20-years weighted mean 2008: 1.1470468 20-years weighted mean 2007: 1.1313778 20-years weighted mean 2006: 1.1231448 20-years weighted mean 2005: 1.1243238 20-years weighted mean 2004: 1.1248748 20-years weighted mean 2003: 1.1184198 20-years weighted mean 2002: 1.1066918 20-years weighted mean 2001: 1.0877988 20-years weighted mean 2000: 1.0553008 20-years weighted mean 1999: 1.0145398 20-years weighted mean 1998: 0.975044799999999 20-years weighted mean 1997: 0.944106799999999 20-years weighted mean 1996: 0.924506799999999 20-years weighted mean 1995: 0.908048799999999 20-years weighted mean 1994: 0.892429799999999 20-years weighted mean 1993: 0.873993799999999 20-years weighted mean 1992: 0.843930799999999 20-years weighted mean 1991: 0.798136799999999 20-years weighted mean 1990: 0.734609799999999 20-years weighted mean 1989: 0.648335799999999 20-years weighted mean 1988: 0.542915799999999 20-years weighted mean 1987: 0.437948799999999 20-years weighted mean 1986: 0.331592799999999 20-years weighted mean 1985: 0.235065799999999 20-years weighted mean 1984: 0.158316799999999 20-years weighted mean 1983: 0.0929807999999994 20-years weighted mean 1982: 0.0404897999999994 20-years weighted mean 1981: -0.00725120000000061 20-years weighted mean 1980: -0.0457672000000006 20-years weighted mean 1979: -0.0702742000000006 20-years weighted mean 1978: -0.0860652000000006 20-years weighted mean 1977: -0.0974302000000005 20-years weighted mean 1976: -0.107021200000001 20-years weighted mean 1975: -0.117924200000001 20-years weighted mean 1974: -0.137546200000001 20-years weighted mean 1973: -0.163572200000001 20-years weighted mean 1972: -0.182369200000001 20-years weighted mean 1971: -0.202610200000001 20-years weighted mean 1970: -0.223538200000001 20-years weighted mean 1969: -0.230007200000001 20-years weighted mean 1968: -0.237133200000001 20-years weighted mean 1967: -0.233652200000001 20-years weighted mean 1966: -0.226224200000001 20-years weighted mean 1965: -0.207926200000001 20-years weighted mean 1964: -0.188106200000001 20-years weighted mean 1963: -0.158118200000001 20-years weighted mean 1962: -0.128382200000001 20-years weighted mean 1961: -0.0980612000000006 20-years weighted mean 1960: -0.0842512000000006 20-years weighted mean 1959: -0.0892482000000005 20-years weighted mean 1958: -0.109230200000001 20-years weighted mean 1957: -0.131196200000001 20-years weighted mean 1956: -0.139714200000001 20-years weighted mean 1955: -0.1269872 20-years weighted mean 1954: -0.0801542000000005 20-years weighted mean 1953: -0.00313520000000052 20-years weighted mean 1952: 0.0834687999999995 20-years weighted mean 1951: 0.187357799999999 20-years weighted mean 1950: 0.273068799999999 20-years weighted mean 1949: 0.330319799999999 20-years weighted mean 1948: 0.344701799999999 20-years weighted mean 1947: 0.320922799999999 20-years weighted mean 1946: 0.250504799999999 20-years weighted mean 1945: 0.150080799999999 20-years weighted mean 1944: 0.0285787999999994 20-years weighted mean 1943: -0.0943912000000007 20-years weighted mean 1942: -0.199790200000001 20-years weighted mean 1941: -0.284970200000001 20-years weighted mean 1940: -0.336974200000001 20-years weighted mean 1939: -0.359474200000001 20-years weighted mean 1938: -0.353284200000001 20-years weighted mean 1937: -0.332762200000001 20-years weighted mean 1936: -0.307244200000001 20-years weighted mean 1935: -0.283109200000001 20-years weighted mean 1934: -0.267967200000001 20-years weighted mean 1933: -0.253816200000001 20-years weighted mean 1932: -0.238383200000001 20-years weighted mean 1931: -0.220513200000001 20-years weighted mean 1930: -0.208134200000001 20-years weighted mean 1929: -0.191623200000001 20-years weighted mean 1928: -0.178624200000001 20-years weighted mean 1927: -0.179444200000001 20-years weighted mean 1926: -0.184007200000001 20-years weighted mean 1925: -0.2041032 20-years weighted mean 1924: -0.220035200000001 20-years weighted mean 1923: -0.245100200000001 20-years weighted mean 1922: -0.274319200000001 20-years weighted mean 1921: -0.315490200000001 20-years weighted mean 1920: -0.364727200000001 20-years weighted mean 1919: -0.418036200000001 20-years weighted mean 1918: -0.472725200000001 20-years weighted mean 1917: -0.523636200000001 20-years weighted mean 1916: -0.558647200000001 20-years weighted mean 1915: -0.581516200000001 20-years weighted mean 1914: -0.597251200000001 20-years weighted mean 1913: -0.610355200000001 20-years weighted mean 1912: -0.627653200000001 20-years weighted mean 1911: -0.648915200000001 20-years weighted mean 1910: -0.666605200000001 20-years weighted mean 1909: -0.690498200000001 20-years weighted mean 1908: -0.698585200000001 20-years weighted mean 1907: -0.697649200000001 20-years weighted mean 1906: -0.679899200000001 20-years weighted mean 1905: -0.650548200000001 20-years weighted mean 1904: -0.618123200000001 20-years weighted mean 1903: -0.577335200000001 20-years weighted mean 1902: -0.538016200000001 20-years weighted mean 1901: -0.495275200000001 20-years weighted mean 1900: -0.462794200000001 20-years weighted mean 1899: -0.453005200000001 20-years weighted mean 1898: -0.466029200000001 20-years weighted mean 1897: -0.503482200000001 20-years weighted mean 1896: -0.561019200000001 20-years weighted mean 1895: -0.641938200000001 20-years weighted mean 1894: -0.727469200000001 20-years weighted mean 1893: -0.817771200000001 20-years weighted mean 1892: -0.903117200000001 20-years weighted mean 1891: -0.983897200000001 20-years weighted mean 1890: -1.0389532 20-years weighted mean 1889: -1.0626922 20-years weighted mean 1888: -1.0472072 20-years weighted mean 1887: -1.0052852 20-years weighted mean 1886: -0.946093200000001 20-years weighted mean 1885: -0.880634200000001 20-years weighted mean 1884: -0.820729200000001 20-years weighted mean 1883: -0.775350200000001 20-years weighted mean 1882: -0.746576200000001 20-years weighted mean 1881: -0.730401200000001 20-years weighted mean 1880: -0.718771200000001 20-years weighted mean 1879: -0.714330200000001 20-years weighted mean 1878: -0.704488200000001 20-years weighted mean 1877: -0.690375200000001 20-years weighted mean 1876: -0.667003200000001 20-years weighted mean 1875: -0.645412200000001 20-years weighted mean 1874: -0.6216192 20-years weighted mean 1873: -0.603867200000001 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2020: 2.27533333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2019: 1.91533333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2018: 2.30533333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2017: 1.60533333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2016: 1.49533333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2015: 2.09533333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2014: 1.93533333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2013: 0.695333333333332 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2012: 1.23533333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2011: 2.04533333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2010: 0.115333333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2009: 1.23533333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2008: 1.04533333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2007: 1.49533333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2006: 1.37533333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2005: 0.415333333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2004: 0.825333333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2003: 1.66533333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2002: 1.50533333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2001: 0.885333333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 2000: 1.41533333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1999: 0.795333333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1998: 0.885333333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1997: 1.27533333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1996: 0.0453333333333328 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1995: 0.625333333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1994: 1.80533333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1993: 0.605333333333332 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1992: 1.14533333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1991: 0.405333333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1990: 1.12533333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1989: 1.27533333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1988: 0.775333333333332 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1987: 0.115333333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1986: 0.035333333333333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1985: -0.214666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1984: -0.454666666666667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1983: 0.765333333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1982: 0.645333333333332 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1981: -0.0946666666666669 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1980: -0.734666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1979: -0.144666666666668 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1978: -0.424666666666667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1977: 0.165333333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1976: 0.0453333333333328 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1975: 0.175333333333333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1974: -0.0846666666666671 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1973: -0.324666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1972: -0.334666666666667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1971: 0.0453333333333328 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1970: -0.504666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1969: -0.494666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1968: -0.234666666666667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1967: 0.135333333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1966: 0.0653333333333324 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1965: -0.894666666666667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1964: 0.355333333333332 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1963: -0.864666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1962: -0.874666666666667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1961: 0.955333333333333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1960: -0.164666666666667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1959: 0.705333333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1958: 0.0853333333333328 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1957: 0.215333333333333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1956: -1.47466666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1955: -0.384666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1954: -0.544666666666667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1953: 0.325333333333333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1952: -0.154666666666667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1951: 0.145333333333332 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1950: 0.455333333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1949: 0.855333333333332 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1948: 0.705333333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1947: 1.04533333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1946: 0.165333333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1945: 0.335333333333333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1944: -0.624666666666667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1943: 0.685333333333332 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1942: -0.264666666666668 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1941: -1.02466666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1940: -1.12466666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1939: -0.534666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1938: -0.164666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1937: -0.00466666666666704 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1936: -0.184666666666668 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1935: -0.554666666666668 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1934: 0.555333333333333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1933: -0.744666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1932: -0.304666666666668 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1931: -0.874666666666667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1930: 0.335333333333333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1929: -0.464666666666667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1928: 0.285333333333333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1927: -0.0646666666666675 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1926: 0.165333333333333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1925: -0.544666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1924: -0.504666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1923: -0.164666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1922: -0.884666666666667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1921: 0.655333333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1920: 0.485333333333332 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1919: -1.21466666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1918: -0.244666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1917: -1.27466666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1916: -0.444666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1915: -0.814666666666668 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1914: -0.634666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1913: -0.264666666666668 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1912: -0.814666666666668 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1911: 0.265333333333333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1910: -0.894666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1909: -1.37466666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1908: -0.804666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1907: -0.664666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1906: -0.674666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1905: -1.00466666666667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1904: 0.00533333333333275 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1903: -0.674666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1902: -0.734666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1901: -1.17466666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1900: -0.0746666666666673 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1899: 0.035333333333333 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1898: 0.165333333333333 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1897: -0.114666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1896: -1.26466666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1895: -0.894666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1894: -0.554666666666668 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1893: -0.304666666666668 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1892: -0.634666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1891: -1.32466666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1890: -1.42466666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1889: -1.55466666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1888: -1.33466666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1887: -1.61466666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1886: -0.604666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1885: -0.474666666666668 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1884: -0.374666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1883: -1.11466666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1882: -0.504666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1881: -0.584666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1880: -0.0746666666666673 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1879: -1.72466666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1878: -1.04466666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1877: -0.514666666666668 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1876: -0.344666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1875: -0.724666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1874: -0.784666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1873: -0.164666666666667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1872: 0.0953333333333326 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1871: -1.49466666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1870: -1.21466666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1869: -0.544666666666667 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1868: 0.225333333333332 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1867: -0.514666666666668 Years above the average of 1961–1990 1866: 0.00533333333333275 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1865: -0.164666666666667 Years below the average of 1961–1990 1864: -1.41466666666667
Variations from the average of 1961–1990, in °C

Data for the graph: Excel
Source: MeteoSwiss
Comment

The annual mean temperature in Switzerland is subject to relatively large natural fluctuations. Since around 1950, however, the observed fluctuations can no longer be explained by natural factors alone. The rising concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere caused by humans has contributed substantially to the observed warming. Temperatures in Switzerland have increased by 2°C since measurements began.

The annual mean temperature cannot be rated positively or negatively as such. However, the trend observed over the past decades gives cause for concern. The changes to the climatic setting are happening relatively rapidly; as a result, ecosystems and endangered sectors of the economy (such as winter tourism) are unable or have difficulty to adjust to the new conditions.

International comparison

The Swiss temperature measurement series have been produced in accordance with internationally standardised methods. Globally, annual mean temperature variation since 1864 is about 1 °C, while it is around 2 °C in Switzerland. Global warming is more pronounced over the continents than over the oceans.

A global rise by 2 °C above the pre-industrialisation level is considered to be a critical threshold. If this threshold is crossed, severe ecological, social and economic damage is likely. In view of the longer-term development trends in greenhouse gas emissions and the great inertia of the climate system, it is becoming increasingly probable that global temperatures will indeed cross the 2 °C threshold.

Method

With its ground-level observation system (SwissMetNet), the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss) records a range of meteorological and climatological parameters across the entire territory of the country. The annual mean temperature for Switzerland describes the average temperature measured across the entire territory and at the different altitudes in Switzerland. High-resolution data are available from 1981. In order to extend the time series back to 1864 (beginning of records), the various measurement stations for the specified years are weighted on the basis of their representativity.

 
Last updated on: 20.04.2021

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