With every breath we take, gases such as nitrogen dioxide and ozone are drawn into our airways and lungs, along with thousands of fine particles. They are deposited in the bronchi and alveoli, where they can cause both short- or long-term detrimental health effects. The smaller the particles are, the deeper they penetrate into the lungs. Extremely heavy pollutant loads frequently give rise to disturbances and diseases of the respiratory tract in children and adults (e.g. acute breathing difficulties, chronic coughing and expectoration, bronchitis and chronic bronchitis, and respiratory infections). In the alveoli, respiration and blood circulation are very closely intertwined, both anatomically and functionally. So disturbances to one system, e. g. an inflammation of the respiratory tract, may also affect the other, in this case the cardiovascular system.
In people who are already ill, air pollution imposes a further burden. The higher the air pollutant load, the briefer the respite between episodes. Contamination of the air that we breathe has the effect of reducing average lung capacity and increasing emergency consultations and hospital admissions due to respiratory disorders. Air pollution also shortens life expectancy, increasing daily and total mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer.