Residues from waste or from waste incineration that are not suitable for material or energy recycling are deposited in authorised landfills. If the waste does not fulfil the conditions required for deposit, then it must be treated in an appropriate way.
In Switzerland there are five types of landfill which are identified by the letters A to E, representing an ascending scale of increased risk potential of the waste deposited there. Crucial for the authorisation of a landfill deposit are the total pollutant content (mg/kg dry matter) and also the eluate levels (mg/L) of the waste.
Type A landfills are meant for waste such as, for example, excavation and quarrying material where the presence of pollution can be excluded, as listed (cf. Appendix 5 Paragraph 1 VVEA) in the appendix to the Ordinance on Waste (VVEA, SR 814.600).
In Type B landfills, individually identified waste and other mineral wastes are permitted, as long as the requirements for threshold values and eluate levels can be shown to be fulfilled (cf. Appendix 5 Paragraph 2 VVEA).
Type C landfills are designated for the deposit of anorganic and difficult to dissolve waste and waste containing metals. That is mainly dependent on their previous treatment, for example, heat treatment, and the aim is to largely eliminate organic pollution (cf. Appendix 5 Paragraph 3 VVEA).
Incineration residues such as waste incineration slag are typical of the types of waste permitted in Type D landfills (cf. Appendix 5 Paragraph 4 VVEA).
In Type E landfills, finally, the range of waste is larger, although there is a strict maximum total content for organic material that must be adhered to. The individually listed types of waste may be deposited. Other types of waste are also permitted as long as they adhere to the fixed threshold values (cf. Appendix 5 Paragraph 5 VVEA).
The phases of a landfill, its construction, operation and its maintenance are regulated in the Ordinance on Waste (VVEA, SR 814.600). A landfill concern which as a disposal facility accepts special waste or other notifiable types of waste requires a licence in accordance with the Ordinance on the Movement of Waste (VeVA, SR 814.610).
Last modification 14.08.2019