Chemical-physical processes strip waste of pollutants and enable is safe landfilling. Biological processes transform pollutants into harmless products with the help of microorganisms or plants.
The chemical-physical and biological treatment of waste mainly includes the following processes:
Pollutants are removed from aqueous waste through filtration, precipitation or other techniques like decomposition by microorganisms so that the water can be introduced into the sewage system. Depending on their composition, the pollutants removed from the waste are incinerated or deposited in landfills.
Sludge-like waste must undergo repeated dewatering cycles so that it can be incinerated or deposited in landfills.
Solid waste with high pollutant content may not be deposited in landfills without undergoing pre-treatment. Pollutants can be removed from contaminated excavated material through washing. Organic pollutants are destroyed using thermal treatment or transformed into harmless substances using microorganisms or plants. Waste containing high levels of heavy metals, for example filter ash from waste incineration plants, is solidified using binders like cement. This prevents the leaching of the pollutants.
Last modification 15.03.2018